Sunday, January 14, 2007

These claims also ramify in relation to another constituency of thought and exploration,which in terms of the constitution of knowledge in Western academia,Is far apart in terms of their basic ontological and epistemological premises. This relates to the emergent discipline of the relationship of artificial intelligence to consciousness as understood by human beings.

The development of conceptions of reflexive architecture by Neil Spiller and other thinkers,in which architectural forms share subjectivity with humans,of distributed cognition,as discussed by Hales in her work on the post human,research on what is understood at the MIT Media Lab as ambient intelligence,in which reactive intelligence,intelligence capable of responding to the manifold cues that simulate consciousness rather than simply those that are encoded within a mechanical circuit,no matter how sophisticated, is distributed within a physical enrolment and is not limited localised within the human frame,and ubiquitous computing,envisioned by Mark Weiser,in which computing develops the pervasiveness and ubiquity that enables human consciousness to operate effectively in the world.

All these conceptions of the possibilities of human and non-human interface could be seen as related,although emerging from a different history of cognitive development,and emerging from different ontological and epistemological grounds,to the ideas of interaction between human consciousness and modes of being/consciousness in nature that are central to the work of Wenger and that emerge in relation to the work of Maltwood,particularly when this is examined in relation to the movement of revaluation of the relationship between the human being and nature to which her work belongs.
The work of these figures,their fascination with particular landscapes and the manner in which they have chosen to express this fascination,are integrated for me, in the theories of Dion Fortune,a thinker in the tradition of Western Hermeticism/in the Western Hermetic tradition. Fortune expounded ideas about consciousness,particularly ijn terms of/i relation to its relationships in the human being and in nature/particularly the vegetative world,that I have applied in an existential sense and the results of the experience of which have drawn me to the study of others,in this case,Wenger and Maltwood represent a focus for others making similar who are making claims similar to those of Fortune and on account of my experience in relation to,I have been compelled to investigate using the broadest range of methods I can readily employ/deploy,of which the methods of academic research represent one avenue of exploration.

Two poles intersect in the choice of these artists and theses spaces. These poles consist in the grounding/relationship of theses artists and their preoccupations with these spaces, to the emotive,imaginative and question asking orientation of the writer of this work as developed in the course of their lives. The second pole relates to the situatedness of the preoccupations of these artists to particular fields of knowledge,in relation to which their work can act as a focus for/a prism for questions and preoccupations that ramify not only beyond themselves,but which integrate a broad range of questions. The central questions of which are the preoccupations of this project with issues/questions of perception,both visual and cognitive,in relation to the human embodiment and the spatial constitution/construction through which spatial navigation is possible.
On another overlapping point of the horizon,a notion of simultaneity that contradicts the linearity,and thereby,of temporal succession, implied by a horizon. But I have not been able to conceive of a better metaphor,although Deridda's circle metaphor might be particularly adaptable here,is the particular context within which I am exploring this perceptual experience,its embodied and mobile affordances and its cognitive construction. That is the interpretation of two distinct spaces/different spaces by two artists,Susanne Wenger and Katherine Maltwood.

Why these two artists?And why the spaces they devote themselves to?
Wenger works in the Oshun Forest in Southern Nigeria while Maltwood was peroccupied with Glastonbury in England in terms of interpretive parameters that relate to other aspects of her work as sculptor and watecolorist. Wenger has worked principally in cement and mud sculpture,with her Nigerian collaborators,two of whom are Adebisi Akanji and Buraimoh Gbadamosi,while Maltwood has worked in terms of the imaginative constructiond constructed through the making of maps as well as the fraction of these in her more conventional artistic media of bronze sculpture and water colour. They have both written significantly in exposition of their ideas although Wenger is much more of the dedicated ideologue,whose written expression could be understood to stand beside her visual art as a distinctive achievement of its own in term of the metaphysical and poetic power of its reconstruction of a pre-existing/ preexistentent vision.
We shall also engage with ideas relating to the nature of space and of time and the bearing of these variables constants on the very constitution of the character of that world where such considerations are possible. They are constant because they underlie existence as we understand it. They are variable beceasue they change in terms of location and mode of experience.

Geographical constitution is not identical everywhere on the globe. Time could be understood both in terms of geographically determined modes of order,geography understood here in terms of the mater rail form of the earth,which even though it enables time to vary according to various time zones and the seasonal changes within these zones,at least presents a predicable picture.

On the other hand,time can also be understood in terms of a subjectively conceived response/construction,understood either in relation to the individual or in terms of the constructions of group,the intersubjective world shared by members of the same or similar interpretive community/reality constructing/construction community. A world without space and time would imply a different set,structure/sequence of questions than those we are posing here as an aspect of our interrogative framework.

The specific phenomenon this research project will explore is constituted at various overlapping,horizontally conceived aspects. In speaking if horizontal constitution,I am attempting to move beyond the notion of hierarchical constitution suggested by the notion of construction according to levels of meaning,of operation. I mean to imply that the various aspects of the subject/subject matter overlap,they imply each other,and that none is primary to the other in terms of significance or of constitution in time. None comes before the other. This understanding of phenomena would seem to be central to the our mode of investigation as inspired by particular understanding of being,by particular forms of ontology.

One aspect of what I am exploring is centred on questions of perception. Visual perception and its relation to cognitive perception. The relationship between the act of seeing and the act of knowing. And the manner in which these relationships are constituted in relation to/by the experience of movement in space. How does our movement in space,illuminating what we see and the sequence in which we see it,influence what we think,and what we understand and how it is understood?
Here,we shall enter into dialogue with theories of perception and of the relationship between perception and the construction of human subjective and intersubjective worlds. As well as conceptions of the relationship between embodiment and understanding,as constituted,for example,in phenomenology and existentialism.

I wonder,though,if one might not approach the question of how the world works from a sidelong look,a piece meal enquiry,that makes possible a penetration into the questions relative to that enquiry through a specific subject. Taking as a vantage point a particular phenomenon or group of phenomena in a specific field of enquiry,working within/in relation to the rubric defined by contemporary scholarly practice,may one not approach such a question.

One would operate like the poet who employs the conventions of poetic form,the structure of the sonnet,for example,not as a convention that hampers their creativity,but as a from that enables that creativity to flourish in terms of/under the discipline of form,rather than risk dissipation,on focused expression in a an expressive stream. I have read my precise interpretation in to Stephen Hart's words so as to suggest the particular qualities i aspire to. I suspect he might have interpreted the specifics of his words in different terms. But then,as i have already argued,discourse is partly about constructing meaning in terms of certain assumptions.
The central purpose of this PhD project is the search for meaning by the writer of the thesis,by its principal researcher,through/with the active collaboration of his research advisers. There are called supervisors,but it would seem that the mode of guidance he presently enjoys may be better understood as advising rather than supervision,since his guides are operating m,ore in terms of the Platonic notion of the teacher as midwife of the students own truth,capacity for knowing than the more modern understanding of the teacher as someone who imparts knowledge.Meaning of what,about what?Meaning of life,a unifying understanding of the experience of being,as can be perceived from his own vantage point and as can be thereby related to the experiences of others.

Stephen Hart argues that you can not discover how the world works in a PhD. Implying,I think,that the penetration of thought,the leisure for extended reflection, the scope of expression required for such foundational thinking is not the province of the PHD but is better suited to a more assured,less socially dangerous context,where the stakes of success or failure are not as acute. Since time is limited on the PhD. Particular constraints have to be observed. The candidate has to work within/in relation to specific academic requirements which might not always be compatible with the kind of quest implied an exploration of how the world works. Professor Hart made that point in passing while advising me about the choice of a PhD topic. His reception of my enquiry as to whether I was qualified to PhD in comparative literature at University College,London has been vital to my eventual PhD candidacy in that university. His response helping to redefine my self perception into that of a person who could gain admission to an institution which he had long admired from afar but I did not think he could belong to,with his present qualifications,at least no to the program in comparative literature.
Questions about the ground of being,therefore explored in this essay through the study of cognitive processes/inter-ontological/ cognitive processes, in the understanding that the interactive processes in which existential forms are engaged are made possible by the ontological constitution of these forms.(In this regard,see also edward wilsons biophilia)STATEMENT OF PURPOSE

Is it possible to explore the meaning of life through/within /in terms of/the framework of a PhD?Is there any such phenomenon/does/is there any/ any such existent as the meaning of life?Can such a meaning be universalised as the way I have indicated it here suggests or it simply a purely/primarily individual phenomenon?Is the very formulation of the conception not itself indicative of a pressuposition that negates a truly creative quest?In other words,the formulation here indicates/suggests a distinct existent that can be cognized by the human person and p[erahps embodied within/in relation to a text?

This implies an effort to integrate the multiplicity of existence in terms of a unitary interpretation,an interpretation that can be communicated,marshalled in terms of a sequence of letters,themselves communicating the kinds of meaning sequences that letters are created to signify.Such assumptions might be unavoidable since assumptions about the nature of the world are what constitute the very vehicle of our communication,of our way of seeing that world,the very ground,the armature of our consciousnesses could argue that a central quality of self reflexive thought/thinking is the sensitivity to their assumptions,and the effort to deconstruct them so as to move towards what could be understood as less of an assumption,more of a truth that can exist independently of our own determinations. that again,is another assumption. That truth is. That the true is so to the degree that it is independent of the constructions of the human subject.
How can questions about cognitive forms-cognitive agents,cognitive objects/phenomena and cognitive instruments lead to an understanding of the nature of becoming/What do we mean by the nature of being?”Do we imply an underlying essence that all being shares in common?A substratum that would constitute the essential strand that would unite all phenomena,whether abstract or concrete?So,are we speaking of a unifying strand or a unifying ground,or of an originative ground from which all being emerges?

An originating ground,if it exists,might not be accessible by reason but can only be speculated upon,at least within the realm of ratiocinative construction. It would seem that any understanding of such questions is best understood as arrived at partly through the constructive efforts of the human mind/human cognition,in which the capacity to make deductions,correlations,abstractions,unifications of ideas and their relationships to phenomena is crucial. Therefore we would be speaking of a unity between the ratiocinative capacities of the human mind and the possibilities the universe offers for what could be understood as aspects of being that transcend the ontological assent/the sense sense of its existence/assent of any particular mind.

If there exists a unitary or unifying ground of being,does it not follow that the ground of each being which consist in or participate in or emerge from that ground?Would an exploration of the ground of each being the,not constitute an exploration that leads to what that being shares with other beings on its own ground?And since our exploration is woof the ontological characteristics or qualities that enable certain epistemological possibilities as these emerge in/through relationships between phenomena,may our study,therefore,not consist in an exploration of the ground of being through an examination of the ontological implications of cognitive processes as these emerge as mode of interrelationship between phenomena?
The/A central question this essay asks/explores is the character of the boundaries between cognitive agents,cognitive objects and cognitive instruments. We examine cognitive processes that problematise this relationship,transposing the character of cognitive agent from the purely human or even animal realm to that of the non-human or even that of the non-biological. This essay explores questions about the validity of such transpositions and whether or not these questions can be taken beyond the paradoxes that emerge in the relationships between people and landscape into broader areas /fields of cognition.

In what sense do the questions we explore relate to issues of the nature of being,to ontology. The are ontological because we explore questions that deal with then distinctive qualities of phenomena,including human beings,nature and the creations of the human mind,that enable particular phenomena to behave in particular ways,or to be capable of responses or to afford the possibilities for particular modes of repose to it by other phenomena,afford the possibility;/enable the possibility of of particular modes of interaction with it and with other phenomena that emerges in the cognitive process.

Theses questions relate to issues of modes of knowing and of the significance of knowledge,of questions about the character of knowledge,of how knowledge can be arrived at,and of questions of the character of phenomena that makes then accessible to being known in particular ways. In focusing on questions of cognitive process and the significance of knowledge,our questions relate to epistemology and the literature and questions that constitute it and the literature through which these questions are explored. In examining questions about the character of phenomena as this questions of constitution,on ontological identity,of ontological formation enable these phenomena to be knowable in particular ways or enable the privileging of particular forms of knowing,we explore ontological questions and their relationship with the epistemological.
why do you think this question is relevant,particularly in the light of all that has been done to address this question across the centuries across the world?

Perhaps because the effort and the answers are necessarily individual efforts and answers even though a comparative study of various approaches could be very is not moist useful through the development of relationships between divinatory epistemology and responses to sacred landscape,particularly as this is developed in the work of Susanne Wenger and Katherine Maltwood.

The essay examines ontological and epistemological questions that centre of questions of agency in the constitution of knowledge. It explores questions that emerge from relationships between cognitive agents,objects of cognition and cognitive instruments.

Cognitive agents are the subjects who engage if cognitive acts,they are the knower who develop apprehension of phenomena which they may be understood as knowing or knowing something about. Cognitive objects/phenomena are the object/subject of cognition. They are the phenomena about which the cognitive agent,the knowing subject,develops understanding about. Cognitive instruments are tools through which the cognitive agent gains understanding ,knowledge,about the cognitive object,the object of cognition. At this point in this essay,cognitive instruments are understood as the means through which the cognitive agent extends or exercise their innate cognitive faculties so as to gain or develop knowledge.

The cognitive faculties we begin our investigation with are the human cognitive faculties and the cognitive instruments we begin with are the means through which the human being extends the capacities of their cognitive faculties so as to apprehend or develop knowledge.
The study of responses to landscape,particularly landscape interpreted as sacred, foregrounds a pecularlrly apt space for such s tudy beceause it enable the juxtapostion of questions of the relationship bewteen huamn constructions ofg the sognificance of froms pf/asspects of rrelasity and the cxharcter that those forms of relaity embody in themselves indepdent of huamn interpretive construction,to the degree that sucxh an ontology can be cognised/grasped by the huamn awareness/cognniution.

This question emerges on account of the fcat that accounts of responses to sacred space often forhground a range of rersponses that include both areponse to what is conventionally undestood as aesthetic responses and otjetsc which could be better interpreted as aminimitic,in which asgency is atrtributed to thses lnadvsapes,or even when repondents do not commit themslves to atributing agency to them indicate that their intercations with tyhses spaces encpasulate more than what is coventionally undetstood as sensory reponmses to phenomesan and suggerst something mote in keepinmg with what is undetsood in nterms of either intercourse bretween forms of conscousness,in this case,the huamn and the nonhuman or evokes the sense of agenuis loci a sese of place that is both encpasulated by the notion of a asense of atmosphere and yer gpoes beyond it.

Ivakhif tentaively decrbiues such conceptiomns as what he calls interpertive drift whetre the interpertive responmses drift away from conventional conceptions of relaioty and goes on to vcharcterises such landscapes as heterotopicf spaces where conflicting interpreatyions convewrge andv whgich demostrtae,here revealing a sesnitrivity to the animistic sensivbility bith in the spitut of the scholar in the Western tradion,not commitimg homself to it a “non humn life which alternatevltel;y conceals and reveals itself in a pageant of place names and myths.”
Why landscape?This essay focuses opn the reseponses to lnadscape beceause it invloves imnteractions bewteen various froms of being in manner that provoikes/forgraouinds questions about the constitution of relaity in relation to the interprtreation of the individual ij relation to mthose of the interporetiove conmmunities-the communities of people who influennce their interpretaions-and the phenomena they inteepret.this tripartite convewrgencew would be relvant fro the srtudy of the question of the ground of ebing in relation to any phernomenaon since interpertive process necessarily operate in terms of this triple matrix.

Chapter 1:
A. Statement of purpose
This essay explores questions about/that centre on the nature/ground of being. While not agreeing wholly with Socrates that “the unexamined life is not worth living”since what constitutes examination might be identical with different people,and certainly might not be identical with the dialectical reasoning/ratiocination that Socrates worked with,we need to enquire/humans need to enquire into th grounds of what constitutes our sense of relaitry,/the grpounds/foundations opf wehat constitutes oyur rrelaity/our unbderstandiung of relasity as abasis for a frlexive exploreation of our eioxstence.Sucxh an exploration mcan be carried out susing the methods of various dsicplines and this particular enquiry intends to carry out that exploration through the convergence of avruous discplinary enquiries in trelation to responses to l;andscape.

Wednesday, December 20, 2006

This bibliography is organised in terms of the themes and disciplines that are central to my thesis.
The three major categories into which the bibuiolography is organised are subjects, themes and disciplines.Subjecvts are rthe subject matter that are vital to the thsesis but constitute particularly figures within a alarger body of kbolwdge.The two central subjects in are the two artistic cpoccliborations the thesis foicuses onb,aetelier Wenger and the “team” Katherine Maltwood and Mary Caine, as well as the landscapes they work on,the Osahun Forest in Nigeria and the Glastonbury landscape in England.
The themes are braod bodies of ideas nthat can be cintelatted in relation to a central idea.
The concept of disciplines refers here to bodies of kbnolwdge that demonstrate btheir won epistemology and a unmdetrstanding of the world derived in relatrion to that epistemology.Some pof the cetral disciplines here are philosophy and religiond and their subdivions of divinatory theory and practice and its relationsdhip to the divinatory systems which are cemnty5r4al to the thsesais-Ifa and its derivatives,Astrology,Tarot and the I Ching.
The bibliography is oranised in terms of this tripartite classicidaction I order to guide the rseracher and any9one lse examining the bibliography in an undrtstanding of the methodology througfh which the thesis is beinbg developed as wellas nthe conclousions arrtiv4ed at so far.
The cetral constribution to knowdge of this thsesis ois projected to be the development of the UIfa suistem of divination into a critrical system through which knolwdge can be developed in manner anmd arriving at results that trabsecdnd the idelologfical framework fromwhich the UIfa system eherges.This gaol is developed in relation to two compleneytaru goals.The fisrt complemntary goal is that of developinf this critical deanaysois in relationb tom questions of relationships between cognitive agents-the knowing agent-cognticve instruments-the tools thropugh which knowedge is artived at,whther inmnatrerail as ideas or matrerao as textwse-anmd cognitive forms-the objects varrived at in knolwegeas ths are untsood in terms of the relationship between the human self and landscape as thsaes are resented by the relationship of the school of Wenger and ther team of Msaltwood and Caine to the Oshun Foirest and the Glstonbury landscape,respectively.
The scond compl;emtray goal comnsits in exploring qiesuions of the degree to which the creal theortical and methodlogical conmcern sof the thsesis cal nead to an undetstanding of thegroubnd of being.Is hre ground of beimng a given,esiting over anf agisnt the human self,it irt constuitued by the self ihn the process of ebing or is =t something of both,both indeoedent of and mutually consytitutive of as well as constituted by the humn self/Thses questions are explored in ytertms of tjheir points pof copnverergence with qiestuons about the relationship between creations of the human mind through which questions that tranbsenbd the convetional capoicities of the mind are explorted,in divination and in terms of their vre;latrionshup to the question of the degree to which notions of snonmaterial ormetamtrail aspects of lanfdscape are inherent to landscape or developed by the human mind.

In order to arrtive at this goal,a number of subjects,thmes and discil0jkes have to be engaged with.Thses can be understood in nterms of the levels of inckusiveness.In this regard,the most inckusive are discpl;ines within whgich the subjects and the disnmplines arte studies.
The most imnckusive disciplines are phiolosophy,religious studies,aesthetiocs,literay and cukltural criticism and visual tudies,geography,architecture.
The inclusion of disciplines from the sciences helps to ehagge with similar questions that emerge from sciemntific dismnplies.Space Syuntax compemnts the study of the philosophy of space because it blamces a more objective approach to space with the more subjective approaches of some philosophical and aesthetic aproacjes to apsce.Complexity theory facikites a n understanding of how indepdent agents intereact to mcreate unfied oputcomes,a subject vital to the exploration of relationships between and within groups of cogntiove agents,cognitive froms and cognitive instruments.Virtaul and Ubiquoitrous computing highlight questions of relationsgips between space as constructed by the human mind and space as an extrahuman existent.
Each category in the bibliography is introduced with an explanation of its rtelanver toi the thesis.The entries re not exhaustive.Theoir focus is on texts,websites and three filkms that have proved central to developing my thking on the issues in question as wellm as complemnray extries from biographies of scvholars who explore rsimilar oirv related questions,specifically the bilograhies of my supervisor Tani tribe for her coiyrsevin aesthetic cristcism and theory,Anbdrw Reid bibliography on the ararchelogy of Africa and Tanner onm comparative art and archelogy.Other scholars whose bibilographiues ouild also have been rtelavnt to compemnt this were noted but not used on account of constraints oif tinme.They shall be visiyted later.
The texts prsente here are by both practioners of particular regious,spiritual and imaginative oretations as well as by scholars of thses porientastions.

Texts by Susanne Wenger on her school and by the “team” of Katherine Maltwood and Mary Caine.
1.1. Books and articles by Susanne Wenger
1.1.1 Books

Wenger, Susanne, The Timeless Mind of the Sacred: Its New Manifestations in the Òşun Groves, ( Ibadan: Institute of African Studies,
University of Ibadan, 1977 )
………………………The Sacred Groves of Osogbo, ( Linzerstrabe :Augustine Merzeder,1990 )

……………………with Gert Chesi, A Life with the Gods in their Yoruba Homeland (Brixentaller Strasse: Perlinger Verlag,1983 )

1.1.2. Interviews
Rolf Brockmann and Gerd Hotter, Adunni: A Portrait of Susanne Wenger ( Munchen: Trickster Verag,1994)

1.2. Books by Katherine Maltwood and Mary Caine

Maltwood, Katherine, A Guide to Glastonbury’s Temple of the Stars (Cambridge: James Clarke,1982 )
……………………..Enchantments of Britain or King Arthur’s Round Table of the Stars (Cambridge: James Clark,1982 )
………………………..Itinerary of “The Somerset Giants” (Victoria: Victoria Publishing) [undated]

Caine, Mary,‘The Glastonbury Zodiac’ Gandalf’s Garden, no. 4, 1969;

Mary Caine, The Glastonbury Giants, Kingston -Upon -Thames,1978;

Mary Caine,n.d.A Map of the Glastonbury Zodiac: Arthur’s Original Round Table. N.p

Mary Caine ,Celtic Saints and the Glastonbury Zodiac (Berks: Capall Bann Publishing, 1998)
…………….The Kingston Zodiac (Berks: Capall Bann Publishing,2001).
………………The Glastonbury Zodiac: Key to the Mysteries of Britain (Surrey, 1978) ( self published )

Texts on the Susanne Wenger and her school and the “team” of Katherine Maltwood and Mary Caine,as well as Glastonbury.

2.1. On Aetelier wenger
Beier, Ulli, The Return of the Gods:The Sacred Art of Susan Wenger (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,1975 )
Olajubu, Oyerunke, “The Place of Susanne Wenger’s art in Yoruba Religion: A Preliminary Survey” Ijele Art Journal of the African World,Issue 5 ( 2002)

2.2. On Maltwood and Caine and Non-Fiction on Glastonbury
Ashe,Geoffrey, King Arthur’s Avalon: The Story of Glastonbury (Glasgow: William Collins,1987)

Ivakhiv, Adrian,Claiming Sacred Ground: Pilgrims and Politics at Glastonbury and Sedona (Bloomington:Indiana UP,2001)

Pennick, Nigel, The Ancient Science of Geomancy: Man in Harmony with the Earth (London; Thames and Hudson, 1979 )

These traditions provide complementary perspectives on the thesis’ central questions.
The imaginative stimulation of the Glstonbury landscape is powerfully evoked in thses works.
Caldecott,Moyra, The Green Lady and the King of Shadows: A Glastonbury Legend ( Glastonbury: Gothic Image 1989 )
Rickman,Phil, The Chalice: A Glastonbury Ghost Story (Oxford Macmillan, 1997)

Conceptions of the imaginative charcter of the Glstonbury landscape,particularly as concevcived by Maltwood and VCaine belong to the Arthurain and Grail traditions.

The Camelot Project at

Modern : Post 19th Century

Bradley, Marion Zimmer, The Mists of Avalon (London:Penguin,1993 )
…………………………Lady of Avalon (London:Penguin,1997 )
Chopra, Deepak, The Return of Merlin (New York:Harmony,1995 )
Cornwell, Bernard, Excalibur:A Novel of Arthur (London:Penguin,1998 )
Gilliam,Richard, et al. eds. Grails: Quests of the Dawn ( London;Penguin,1994 )
Hemingway, Amanda, Sangreal Trilogy 1:The Greeenstone Grail (London:HarperCollins,2004 )
Lawhead,Stephen, The Pendragon Cycle Book One:Taliesin (Oxford : Lion,1987 )
…………………The Pendragon Cycle Book Two:Merlin ( Oxford: Lion 1988 )
………………….The Pendragon Cycle Book : Arthur (Oxford : Lion,1989)
…………………..The Pendragon Cycle Book : Pendragon (Oxford : Lion,1994)
…………………The Pendragon Cycle Book : Grail ( Oxford : Lion, 1997)
………………………Avalon :The Return of King Arthur (New York:HarperCollins,2000)
Miles,Rosalind, Guenevere,: The Knight of the Sacred Lake (London:Simon and Schuster,2000 )
Moorcock, Michael, Von Bek: The Tale of the Eternal Champion vol. 1 (London: Orion 2004)
Stewart,Mary, The Crystal Cave (London:Penguin,1970 )
………………..The Hollow Hills (London:Coronet,1974 )
……………….The Last Enchantment (London:G.K.Hall,1979)
…………………The Wicked Day (New York:Ballantine,1983 )
White,T.H,The Once and Future King (London:Collins,1958 )
White,T.H,The Book of Merlyn (London:Collins,1978 )

Ashe,Geoffrey ed the quest for arethurts Britain London psa;ladin 1984
Hutton,Ronald, Witches, Druids and King Arthur (London:Continuum,2006 )
Mathews,John, ed. At the Table of the Grail (London:Watkins,2002 )

Pre-Modern pre-19th century
Malory, Sir Thomas, Le Morte Darthur (Hertfordshire: Wordsworth Editions,1996)
Matarsso, P. M, The Quest of the Holy Grail ( Middlesex:Penguion,1981)
Stone, Brian, trans.King Arthur’s Death:Alliterative Morte Arthure and Stanzaic Le Morte Arthur (London:Penguin,1988)

The understanding oif Glkastonbury developed by Maltwood and Caine also belongs woth the WESTERN Esoteric Tradion,in relatrion to the laters efforts to develop an inmgenpusd religios ideology from the folore,literature and landscapes of Euroipe.

The Pgan strand of the Western esoteric tradion relates to the imaginative undetrstanding of landscapwe developed by Matwood and aine.It also relates to questions about agency in terms of the relationship between landcape and ahumn self.
Crowley, Vivianne Wicca (London: Thorsons,2000 )
Furlong, David, Earth Energies: How to Tap into the Healing Powers of the Natural World ( London: Piatkus,2003 )
Gardner, Gerald, Witchcraft Today (London:Citadel,2004 )
…………………The Meaning of Witchcraft (New York:Weiser, 2004)
Green,Marian, The Elements of Natural Magic (Dorset:Elements,1989)
Hesselton, Philip, The Elements of Earth Mysteries (Dorset: Element, 1993)
Hutton, Ronald, The Triumph of the Moon: A History of Modern Pagan Witchcraft (Oxford: Oxford UP,
Mathews, Kathryn and Ly Warren-Clarke, The Way of Merlin: The Male Path in Wicca (Dorset: Prism Press,1990 )
Mathews,Caitlin and John Mathews, The Western Way: A Practical Guide to the Western Mystery Tradition. vol. 1:The Native Tradition;
Vol. 2: The Hermetic Tradition (London: Penguin, 1994)
Starhawk, Spiral Dance: A Rebirth of the Ancient Religion of the Great Goddess ( New York: Harper Collins,1989 )

The Hermetic strand of the Western esoteric tRadion,particularly in its 20ty centaury development could be undetsood vas the centyral rtespoository of the theorical underpinnings of Western eostreicism.It resents therefore,the ctreal efforts of the tradition to develop a distincytive epstemilogy,metaphysics and methodology I relation to which thsesepistemologfical and metaphysical potualtes are pit into practice.
Anon. The Office of the Holy Tree of Life. Publication Details not Provided.
Butler, W.E, Magic its Ritual, Power and Purpose and the Magician his Training and Work( London: Aquarian,1991 )
…………Apprenticed to Magic and Magic and the Qabalah ( London:Aquarian 1990)
Conway, David, Magic: an Occult Primer ( Herts: Mayflower,1974 )
Crowley, Aleister, Magick: Book 4 (New York:Weiser,1998 )
Fortune, Dion, The Mystical Qabalah (Maine;Weiser,1997 )
……………The Esoteric Philosophy of Love and Marriage (London: Society of the Inner Light, 1995)
……………Esoteric Orders and their Work (London: HarperCollins 1995)
…………….The Training and Work of an Initiate ( London: HarperCollins 1995)
.....................Applied Magic ( London: HarperCollins,1995)
……………Aspects of Occultism ( London: HarperCollins 1995)
Gilbert, Adrian, Magi: The Quest for a Secret Tradition ( London:Bloomsbury,1996 )
Mathews,Caitlin and John Mathews, The Western Way: A Practical Guide to the Western Mystery Tradition. vol. 1:The Native Tradition;
Vol. 2: The Hermetic Tradition (London:Penguin,1994)
Regardie, Israel, The Tree of Life :an Illustrated Study in Magic (Minnesota:Lllewellyn,2001)
……………….ed. The Original Account of the Teachings, Rites and Ceremonies of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn
Yates, Frances, Giodarno Bruno and the Hermetic Tradition(Chicago: University of Chicago Press,1991)
………………..The Rosicrucian Enlightenment (London: Routledge,1986 )

2.3.5. ALCHEMY
The alcewhmic trand of the Western esoteric tradition
Burckhardt, Titus, Alchemy: Science of the Cosmos, Science of the Soul, trans.William Stoddart (Maryland: Penguin,1967 )
Roob, Alexander, Hermetic Museum: Alchemy and Mysticism (London: Taschen,2001)
Jung, C. G. ,Psychology and Alchemy ( London: Routledge,1968 )
…………………..Mysterium Conjunctionis: An Inquiry into the Separation and Synthesis of Psychic Opposites in Alchemy(London:Routledge,1970)

Original imaginative works from and reconstructions of Celtic culture are central to the Western Pagan tradition and to the study of cultural continuities between various eras in the development of affiliated cultures spread over time and space. Along these lines, the Celtic tradition suggests possibilities of relationships between feminine symbolism in the Celtic, Arthurian and Ifa traditions that provides a key motif of the thesis. This motif emerges from relationships of form and function between the Celtic image of the cauldron of the goddess Ceridwen, the Grail in Athrurian legend,and the calabash of Odu in the Ifa tradition. The relationship of function they share is one that suggests the notion of psychological and spiritual transformation. I adapt this motif in making the form and function that links these vessels to the notion of a transformative matrix.This matrix is developed in terms of the idea of the relationship between the human being and the world as being a transformative relationship. Within this relationship, both world and human share a cognitive symbiosis/are cognitively symbiotic.

Gantz, Jeffrey, The Mabinogion ( Harmondsworth:Penguin,1984 )
Mathews, Caitlin, The Elements of the Celtic Tradition (Dorset:Element,1989 )
Silf, Margaret, Stations on a Celtic Way (Oxford Lion,2001)

Redfield, James, The Celestine Prophecy: An Adventure (London: Bantam, 1994)


Abimbola, Wande, Ifa: An Exposition of Ifa Literary Corpus,( Ibadan: OUP, 1976)
Abimbola, Wande, Ifa Divination Poetry ( New York: Nok, 1977)
Abimbola, Wande, Sixteen Great Poems of Ifa (Paris: Unesco, 1975)
Abimbola, Wande “,Iwapele: “The Concept of Good Character in Ifa Literary Corpus”, Yoruba Oral
Tradition: Poetry in Music, Dance and Drama (Ed.) Wande Abimbola. (Ile-Ife:University of Ife,1975)388-417.
Abimbola, Wande,Ijinle Ohun Enu Ifa,Apa Kiini,vol.1(Collins:Glasgow,1968).
--------------------Ijinle Ohun Enu Ifa,Apa Kiini,vol.2(Collins:Glasgow,1969).
Ifa Will Mend our Broken World: Thoughts on Yoruba Religion and Culture in Africa and the Diaspora (Roxbury, MA : Aim Books, 1997)
Bascom, William, Ifa Divination: Communication between Gods and Men in West Africa(Bloomington: Indiana UP,1969)
Cromwell Osamaro Ibie, Ifism: The Complete Works of Orunmila,vol.1(Efehi:Lagos,1986) )
…………………………Ifism: The Complete Works of Orunmila,vol.2:The Odus of Eji-Ogbe how Man Created his Own God (Efehi:Lagos,1986) )

Emmanuel, Abosede, Odun Ifa: Ifa Festival (Lagos: West African Book
Publishers, 2000)
Gates Jr., Henry Luis, The Signifying Monkey: A Theory of African-American Literary Criticism (New York: Oxford UP, 1979)
Gleason, Judith with Awotunde Aworinde and John Olaniyi Ogundipe, A Recital of Ifa:Oracle of the Yoruba(New York,1972)
Mapanje, Jack and Landeg White,ed, Oral Poetry from Africa: An Anthology (Essex: Longman, 1984)
Staewen, Christoph, Ifa: African Gods Speak (Hamburg: Christoph Stewen,1996)

Onwuejeogwu, M. Angulu, Afa Symbolism and Phenomenology in Nri Kingdom and Hegemony: An African Philosophy of Social Action (Benin:
Maupoil, Bernard, La Géomancie à l'Ancienne Côte des Esclaves (Paris : Institut d'Ethnologie, 1988)

Peek, Philip M., African Divination Systems : Ways of Knowing (Bloomington : Indiana UP, 1991 )
La Gamma, Alisa, Art and Oracle: African Art and Rituals of Divination (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art,2000 )
Pemberton,John III ed, Insight and Artistry in African Divination (Washington:Smithsomian,2000 )
Zuesse,Evan, “Divivation and Deity in African Religions”, History of Religions, vol.15,no.2. Nov.1975.158-182.

Anon. Meditations on the Tarot: a Journey into Christian Hermeticism, trans. Robert Powell (New York:Tarcher/Putnam,2002 )
Cavendish, Richard, The Tarot (London: Chancellor Press,1987)
Dee,Jonathan, Tarot: An Easy to Follow Illustrated Guide to the Mysteries of the Tarot (Bath:Paragon,1999)
Gardner, Richard, Fortune Telling by Tarot Cards (London: Rigel Press,1974)
Waite, Arthur Edward, The Key to the Tarot (London :Rider,1993 )

Geoffrey, Cornelius, The Moment of Astrology: Origins in Divination (Bournemouth; The Wessex Astrologer,2003).
Gauquelin,. Michael, Neo-Astrology a Copernican Revolution (London: Penguin,1991 )
Jocelyn, John, Meditation on the Signs of the Zodiac (San Francisco: Harper and Row,1970 )

Blofeld, John, I Ching :The Book of Change (London: Unwin,1980)
Wilhelm, Helmut, Eight Lectures on the I Ching (New York: Harper and Row, 1960 )

Badenoch, Lindsay, The Daughter of the Runes (London Penguin,1988 )
Mathew, Caitlin and Rachel Pollack ,ed. Tarot Tales (London Arrow,1991)
Pullman,Philip, His Dark Materials vol 1: Northern Lights (London: Scholastic, 1995)
………………..His Dark Materials vol 2 : The Subtle Knife (London:Scholastic, 1998 )
………………His Dark Materials vol 3 :The Amber Spyglass ( London: Scholastic, 2000 )
Wilkins,Kim, The Ressurectionists (London:Gollancz,1988 )

Orangun,Adegboyega, Destiny:The Unmanifested Being (Ibadan: African Odyssey Publishers,1988)

Longe, Olu, Ifa Divination and Computer Science (Ibadan;University of Ibadan,1983)

Adepoju, Toyin, “Metaphorical Transposition: Cosmography to Human Geography” proceedings of the European Modeling Symposium 2006 ed. John

Adepoju, Toyin, “An Exploration of the Mystical Potential of the Ifa Divination System”, unpublished paper,MA in European and
Comparative Literary Studies, University of Kent,2003.

Adepoju, Toyin, Spatial Navigation as Paradigmatic Hermeneutic Strategy: Ifa, Heidegger and Calvino, unpublished MA dissertation, MA in
European and Comparative Literary Studies, University of Kent,2003.
Adepoju, Toyin, Ifa Hermeneutics and Autobiographical Theory: Explorations in the Letters and Self-Portraiture of Van Gogh

unpublished MA dissertation, MA Comparative Literature (Africa /Asia),School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London,2004.


Adepoju, Toyin, “Navigating Spaces of Consciousness: A Dialogue” in Metapolis and Urban Life Workshop 2005 Proceeedings at

Abiodun, Rowland, “Ifa Art Objects: An Interpretation based on Oral Traditions”in Yoruba Oral Tradition:Selections from the Papers Presented at the
Seminar on Yoruba Oral Tradition, ed. Wande Abimbola (Ile-Ife :Department of African Languages and Literatures, University of If.e, 1975)421-469.
………………….. “Riding the Horse of Praise: The Mounted Figure in Ifa Divination Sculpture” in Insight and Artistry in African Divination, ed. John Pemberton 111(London:Smithsonian,2000)182-192.
Witte, Hans, Ifa and Esu: Iconography of Order and Disorder (Soest-Holland: Kunsthandel Luttik,1984)
Yai, Olabisi Babalola, ‘In Praise of Metonymy: The Concepts of Tradition and “Creativity” in the Transmission of Yoruba Artistry over Time and Space’ in
The Yoruba Artist, ed. R. Abiodun, H.J. Drewal, and J.Pemberton111(Washington D.C:Smithsonian,1994)107-15.


Abimbola, Kola, Yoruba Culture: a Philosophical Account (Birmingham: Iroko Academic Publishers, 2005 )
Abiodun, Rowland et al. eds. The Yoruba Artist (Washington D.C: Smithsonian, 1994)
Drewal, Henry John and John Mason Beads, Body and Soul ( Los Angeles: UCLA Fowler
Museum of Cultural History, 1998 )
…………………….et al.eds. Yoruba: Nine Centuries of African Art and Thought (New York: Harry N. Abrams,1989 )
Edwards, Gary and John Mason, ed., Black Gods: Orisa Studies in the New World (Brooklyn: Yoruba Theological Archministry, 1985).
Idowu, Bolaji, Olodumare: God in Yoruba Belief ( Ibadan: Longman, 1962)
Irele, Abiola, The African Experience in Literature and Ideology (London; Heinemann, 1981).
Lawal, Babatunde , The Geledé Spectacle : Art, Gender, and Social Harmony in African Culture, Seattle :University of Washington Press, 1996.
Olajubu, Oyerunke, Women in the Yoruba Religious Sphere (New York:State University of New York Press, 2003 )
Soyinka, Wole, The Credo of Being and Nothingness, Ibadan: Spectrum, 1991.
……………… Myth, Literature and the African World (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1990).


Armah, Ayi kwei, the healers an historical novel London heinemann1979

Ba, Amadou,Hampa te, “The Living Tradition”, in J.Ki- Zerbo ed, UNESCO General History of Africa VOL 1 Methodology and African Prehistory


……………………….Kaidara: a Fulani Cosmological Epic from Mali, trans. Daniel Whitman (Washington:Three Continents Press,1988)
Bodunrin, P.O. ed. ,Philosophy in Africa: Trends and Perspectives (Ile-Ife: University of Ife Press,1985)
Coetzee, P.H. and Roux, A.P.J. (eds.), The African Philosophy Reader,

Hallen, Barry, 1997, “African Meanings, Western Words”, in African Studies Review, Vol. 40, No1, April 1997
Hountondji, Paulin,“The Reasons for Scientific Dependence in Africa Today” Research in African Literatures, vol.21, no.3, Fall 1990,5-15
…………………African Philosophy: Myth and Reality ( Indiana: Indiana UP,1983)
Kunene, Mazisi, “Introduction”, Anthem of the Decades (London : Heinemann, 1981)ix-xxx; xxxi-xl
Masolo, D.A., African Philosophy in Search of Identity
Mudimbe, Valentine,The Invention of Africa: Gnosis, Philosophy and the Order of Knowledge (London : James Currey; Bloomington : Indiana U.P.,
Oladipo, Olusegun, The Idea of African Philosophy (Ibadan:Molecular Publishers, 1992 )

Orangun,Adegboyega, Destiny: the Unmanifested Being (Ibadan: African Odyssey,1998 )

Soyinka,Wole,The Credo of Being and Nothingness ( Ibadan : Spectrum Books in association with Safari Books, 1991).

Thompson, Adewale, African Beliefs: Science or Superstition? (Ibadan :Newton,1977)

Wiredu, Kwesi, Conceptual Decolonisation in African Philosophy: Four Essays ( Ibadan: Hope,1995 )


Forde, Daryll, ed. African Worlds : Studies in the Cosmological Ideas and Social values of African Peoples (Oxford : James Currey: LIT, 1999).
Fortes, M and Germaine Dieterlen ed. African Systems of Thought (London : Oxford U.P,1965 ).

Alighieri, Dante The Divine Comedy
Borges, Jorge Luis, Labyrinths (London: Penguin, 1964)
………………trans. Andrew Hurley, The Aleph (London: Penguin, 2000)
Coopper,louise The Time Master Trilogy vol 1: The Initiate (London:1986)
………………The Time Master Trilogy vol. 2: The Outcast (London: Unwin,1986 )
……………….The Time Master Trilogy vol. 3 : The Master ( London: HarperCollins,1987)
Eliach,Yaffa, Hasidic Tales of the Holocaust (New York:Avcon,1982 )
Green, Arthur, ed., Menahem Nahum of Chernobyl, Upright Practices, The Light of the Eyes (New York: Paulist Press,1982 )
Head, Bessy, A Question of Power ( Oxford:Heinemann,1974 )
Tolkien, John Ronald Ruel, The Lord of the Rings 3 vols. (London: George Allen and Unwin,1976 )
………………………….The Silmarillion (London: Book Club Associates,1978)
Le Guin, Ursula, The Earthsea Quartet (London: Penguin, 1993)
Nahman of Bratslav, The Tales, ed.Arnold Band (New York: Paulist Press, 1978).
Okigbo Christopher, Labyrinths (Ibadan:Heinemann,1977 )
Soyinka, Wole, Idanre and Other Poems ( London: Methuen,1979 )

Armstrong, Karen, A History of God: the 4000 Year Quest of Judaism, Christianity and Islam (New York: Alfred Knopf, 1993)
Campbell, Joseph, The Masks of God vol .1 : Primitive Mythology (London : Secker & Warburg: 1960 )
……………….. The Masks of God Vol.2 :Oriental Mythology (London : Secker & Warburg, 1962 )
………………. The Masks of God Vol.3 : Occidental Mythology(London : Secker & Warburg, 1965 )
…………………...The Masks of God Vol.4 : Creative Mythology (London : Souvenir Press, 2001 )

Dan, Joseph “Preface”, Nahman of Bratslav: The Tales ( New York: Paulist
Press, 1978)pp.xiii-xix.
Irele,Abiola,”Wangrin:A Study in Ambiguity”, Amadou Hampate Ba, The Fortunes of Wangrin, trans. Aina Pavollini Taylor (Ibadan: New Horn
Jones, Eldred Durosimi, African Literature Today, Vol.II : Myth and History
Okphewho, Isidore, “African Poetry: The Modern Writer and the Oral Tradition”, African Literature Today,vol.16: Oral and Written Poetry in African Literature Today.
…………………….Myth in Africa : A Study of its Aesthetic and Cultural Relevance (Cambridge : Cambridge UP, 1983 )
………………………The Epic in Africa : Toward a Poetics of the Oral Performance (New York : Columbia University Press, 1979 )
Wiskind-Elper, Ora, Tradition and Fantasy in the Tales of Nahman of Bratlslav ( New York: State University of New York,1998 )

Caldecott, Moyra, Guardians of the Tall Stones ( London: Arrow,1986 )
Horwood,William, Duncton Wood (McGraw-Hill1980
Duncton Quest (Arrow Books1988)
Duncton Found (Century1989)
Duncton Tales (London:HarperCollins1991)
The Book of Silence (London:1992)
Duncton Rising (London:HarperCollins,1993)
Duncton Stone (London:HarperCollins,1993)

Appiah, Anthony, Thinking it Through: an Introduction to Contemporary Philosophy (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003).

Maritain, Jacques, An Introduction to Philosophy ( London: Continuum,2005 )

The Passion of the Western Mind: Understanding the Ideas that have Shaped our World View (London: Random House, 1996)

de Chardin, Teilhard, Hymn of the Universe (New York: William Collins,1961)


Leaman, Oliver, Eastern Philosophy: Key Readings (London : Routledge, 2000)

Radhakrishnan, Sarvepalli, Indian Philosophy, 2 Vols (New Delhi: Oxford UP,2003)
Lao Tzu,Tao te Ching ( Harmondsworth : Penguin, 1963)

Birdwhistell, Anne D., Li Yong (1627-1705) and Epistemological Dimensions of Confucian Philosophy (Stanford : Stanford University Press, 1996)


Kapleau, Roshi Philip, ed. The Three Pillars of Zen: Teaching, Practice, and Enlightenment ( Garden City, N.Y. : Anchor Press, 1980).
Parkes,Graham, Reading Zen in the Rocks: the Japanese Dry Landscape Garden trans (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000 )
Reps, Paul, complied Zen flesh, Zen bones ( Harmondsworth: Penguin,1971 )
Watts, Alan, The Way of Zen (Harmondsworth: Penguin 1976 )
Tworkov, Helen, Zen in America: Five Teachers and the Search for an American Buddhism( New York: Kodansha,1994)

Campbell, June, Traveller in Space: in Search of Female Identity in Tibetan Buddhism (London: Athlone, 1996 )
Chang,Garma, C.C., The Hundred Thousand Songs of Milarepa (Boston:Shamballa,1999)
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Yamada,Koun, The Gateless Gate the Classic Book of Zen Koans (Boston: Wisdom Publications,)

Brunton, Paul, A Search in Secret India
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of Anthropological Archaeology,1997.16:128-157.
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Monuments (Oxford: Berg, 1994).
Tilley, Christopher, Metaphor and Material Culture (Oxford; Blackwell, 1999)
------------------------A Phenomenology of Landscape: Places, Paths and
Monuments (Oxford: Berg, 1994).

………………………,Material Culture and Text: The Art of Ambiguity (London: Routledge, 1991)


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This project explores the philosophical question of the ground of being in terms of the ontological characteristics that enable individuals, interpretive communities and landscapes to demonstrate mutually constitutive interactions.
This topic is significant because it explores the question of the ground of being, one of the central questions in metaphysics, in terms of a perspective from which the question has rarely been explored. It does this not in terms of phenomena understood as discrete units, or purely in terms of process, but through the mutual constitution that emerges through dialogue between phenomena.
The question of the ground of being is explored in philosophical traditions in terms of three major approaches: the static, the dynamic and the correlation of both the static and the dynamic.
The static approach examines phenomena and their unifying ground in terms of a static, superordinate mode of being that unifies all phenomena as in Platos The Republic. The dynamic perspective examines the question in terms of the ground of being as constituted by a process of becoming as in Whitehead's process philosophy and correlation of the static and the dynamic emerges in Lao Tzu's Tao Te Ching .
This researcher has developed a preliminary exploration of related questions which can be seen at

My research question is centered on an inquiry into the possibility of arriving at the ground of being through an exploration of interactions, understood at an incline of metaphorical and literal interpretation, between humans, interpretive communities and landscapes.
The methodology employed in this project consists of three interrelated forms of enquiry. I adapt a cognitive system of Ifa that has its origins among the Yoruba of Southern Nigeria, which operates in terms of an implicit understanding of ontological correlation between various phenomena .We explore this system in order to develop ideas that could provide clues to ontological relations between phenomena suggestive of an ontological ground that unites them.
The second research method consists developing an experiential relationship with the spaces under study in order to cultivate a sensitivity to the peculiarities of topography and atmosphere that have inspired the artists whose responses we study. This enables a sensately informed but critical and theoretically enriched response to the artists' mediations .
The third research strategy we employ is that of dramatizing the form through which the essay's overarching purpose is pursued by developing the project in terms of a dialogue between the researcher, the ideas they explore, the text through which this exploration is dramatized, and visual depictions of the act of navigating these landscapes. This enables the audience to participate vicariouslyin the act of spatial navigation, both physical and mental, that inspired the artists' responses to the landscapes in question.
This research project contributes to knowledge about the questions it explores and the disciplines through which it does this in terms that could be understood as operating within centripetal and centrifugal relationships to those disciplines. In terms of centripetal relationships, this study contributes to knowledge about the questions it explores in ways that expand our understanding of particular disciplines. In relation to centrifugal relationships, it can be understood to expand our understanding of relationships between disciplines.